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Coal has powered and built infrastructure in modern society and underpinned economies for centuries. It is a critical building block for development – metallurgical coal, also known as coking coal, is used to produce coke – the main source of carbon that is used for making steel and iron alloy. The need for coal in industrial uses has almost doubled since 2000 and will continue to increase until 2040 – it is fundamental in the creation of steel and concrete and provides energy for transportation.

Coal is used in 70% of the world’s steel production and is a key component of many industrial processes. The manufacture of steel ultimately delivers the goods and services that growing economies need – healthcare, telecommunications, improved agricultural practices, better transport networks, clean water and access to reliable and affordable energy. Steel plays a significant role in delivering renewable energy too – each wind turbine requires 260 tonnes of steel made from 170 tonnes of coking coal and 300 tonnes of iron ore. There is no near-term substitute for coking coal in steel production, so we cannot produce the steel we need without coal.